In most cases, the big factories also employed the most advanced mechanization of work. The American Federation of Labor was a combination of national craft unions. Excluded from white unions, however, blacks either identified with employers or formed their own unions. Adam Smith held government intervention harmful and advocated international division of labor. The Great Railroad Strike of Marx saw slavery in the South as a logical extension of capitalism.
In the resulting trial a number of radical leaders were convicted and were sentenced to long prison terms; seven of those convicted were sentenced to death. Where Jews and Italians once crowded the shop floor, she finds today's immigrant workers—Chinese, Mexicans, and Ecuadorians—hunched over high speed sewing machines. Labor discontent continued well into the 20th century. Last updated: November 15, The age of the modern factory and impersonal management changed all that, and the patent unfairness with which workers were treated became scandalous.
But far more than the cotton textile industry was transformed in the course of that revolution. The immigrants who arrived in the latter decades before changed the ethnic character of the United States even more profoundly than had the English, Irish and Germans, coming as they did from Southern and Eastern Europe. The Attractions of Cloth 5. The new technological system definitely favored the hiring of young workers in the auto factories. Views Read Edit View history. As the pace of work in the mills increased without any wage gains, millworkers came to demand a ten-hour workday, giving them time to relax, attend meetings and lectures, and participate in the urban cultural scene around them.
He did not use strikes during bad times when scabs were available, but rather in good times, when it hurt owners more directly by cutting into profits. But far more than the cotton textile industry was transformed in the course of that revolution. In the boardinghouses, the keepers enforced curfews and strict codes of conduct. Andrew Carnegie expressed bitterness about the war between capital and labor. You were not allowed to talk to each other. The aim is to protect the integrity of various skilled trades such as blacksmithing, watch-making, and so on.